Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics develops projections of the labor force, economic growth, industry output and employment, and occupational employment under three sets of alternative assumptions. These projections usually cover a 10- to 15-year period and provide a framework for the discussion of job outlook in each occupational statement in the Handbook. All of the approximately 250 statements in this edition of the Handbook identify the principal factors affecting job prospects and indicate how these factors are expected to affect the occupation in the future. This chapter uses the moderate alternative of each projection to provide a framework for the individual job outlook discussions.
Population trends affect employment opportunities in a number of ways. First of all, changes in the size and composition of the population influence the demand for goods and services--for example, the population aged 85 and over will grow more than three times as fast as the total population between 1990 and 2005, increasing the demand for health services. Equally important, population changes produce corresponding changes in the size and characteristics of the labor force.
The U.S. civilian noninstitutional population, aged 16 and over, is expected to grow more slowly over the next 15 years than it did during the previous 15-year period, increasing from about 188 million to 218 million. However, even slower population growth will increase the demand for goods and services, as well as the demand for workers in many occupations and industries.
The age structure will shift toward relatively fewer children and youth and a growing proportion of middle-aged and older people well into the 21st century. The decline in the proportion of children and youth reflects the lower birth rates that prevailed during the 1970's and 1980's; the impending large increase in the middle-aged population reflects the aging of the "baby boom" generation born after World War II; and the very rapid growth in the number of old people is attributable to high birth rates prior to the Great Depression of the 1930's, together with improvements in medical technology that have made it possible for most Americans to survive into old age.
Minorities and immigrants will constitute a larger share of the U.S. population in 2005 than they do today. Substantial increases in the number of Hispanics, Asians, and blacks are anticipated, reflecting net immigration, and higher birth rates among blacks and Hispanics. Substantial inflows of immigrants, both documented and undocumented, are expected to continue. The arrival of immigrants from every comer of the world has significant implications for the labor force, because immigrants tend to be of working age but of different educational and occupational backgrounds than the U.S. population as a whole.
Population growth varies greatly among geographic regions, affecting the demand for goods and services and, in turn, workers in various occupations and industries. Between 1980 and 1990, the population of the Midwest and the Northeast grew by only 1.4 percent and 3.4 percent, respectively, compared with 13.4 percent in the South and 22.2 percent in the West. These differences reflect the movement of people seeking new jobs or retiring, as well as higher birth rates in some areas than in others.
Projections by the Bureau of the Census indicate that the West will continue to be the fastest growing region, increasing about 19 percent between 1990 and 2005. In the South, the population is expected to increase about 15 percent. The number of people in the Northeast is projected to increase slightly, by about 4 percent, while the Midwest population is expected to remain about the same.
Geographic shifts in the population alter the demand for and the supply of workers in local job markets. Moreover, in areas dominated by one or two industries, local job markets may be extremely sensitive to the economic fortunes of those industries. For these and other reasons, local employment opportunities may differ substantially from the projections for the Nation as a whole presented in the Handbook. Sources of information on State and local employment prospects are identified on page 441.
Labor Force Trends
Population is the single most important factor governing the size and composition of the labor force, which includes people who are working, or looking for work. The civilian labor force totaled 125 million in 1990 and is expected to reach 151 million by 2005. This projected increase -- 21 percent -- represents a slowdown in both the number added to the labor force and the rate of labor force growth, largely due to slower population growth (chart 1).
America's workers will be an increasingly diverse group as we approach the year 2005. White non-Hispanic men will make up a smaller share of the labor force, and women and minority group members will comprise a larger share than in 1990. White non-Hispanics have historically been the largest component of the labor force, but their share has been dropping and is expected to fall from 79 percent in 1990, to 73 percent by 2005. Whites are projected to grow more slowly than blacks, Asians, and others, but will experience the largest numerical increase. Hispanics will add about 7 million workers to the labor force from 1990 to 2005, increasing by 75 percent. Despite this dramatic growth, Hispanics' share of the labor force will only increase from 8 percent to 11 percent, as shown in chart 2. Blacks, Hispanics, and Asian and other racial groups will account for roughly 35 percent of all labor force entrants between 1990 and 2005.
Women will continue to join the labor force in growing numbers. The number of women in the labor force will increase faster than the total labor force, but more slowly than between 1975 and 1990. In the late 1980's, the labor force participation of women under age 40 began to increase more slowly than in the past, in part because of the increases in births that have occurred in recent years. Nevertheless, women were only 40 percent of the labor force in 1975; by 2005, they are expected to constitute 47 percent.
The changing age structure of the population will directly affect tomorrow's labor force. As the proportion of young workers declines, the pool of experienced workers will increase (chart 3). In 1990, the median age of the labor force was 36.6 years; by 2005, it will be 40.6 years.
Between 1975 and 1990, the youth labor force (16 to 24 years of age) dropped by 1.4 million, a 6-percent decline. In contrast, the number of youths in the labor force will increase by 2.8 million over the 1990-2005 period, reflecting an increase of 13 percent, still growing more slowly than the total labor force. As a result, young people are expected to comprise a slightly smaller percentage of the labor force in 2005 than in 1990. Among youths, the teen age labor force (16 to 19 years of age) will increase by 18 percent over the 1990-2005 period, a numerical increase of 1.4 million. The labor force 20 to 24 years of age is projected to increase by 10 percent, also a numerical increase of 1.4 million. The total youth labor force accounted for 24 percent of the entire labor force in 1975, fell to 17 percent in 1990, and should decline further to 16 percent by 2005.
The scenario should be different for prime-age workers (25 to 54 years of age). The baby boom generation will continue to add members to the labor force, but their share of the labor force peaked in 1985. These workers accounted for 61 percent of the labor force in 1975, and rose significantly to 71 percent in 1990, but should decline slightly to 69 percent by 2005. The growing proportion of workers between the ages of 45 and 54 is particularly striking. These workers should account for 24 percent of the labor force by the year 2005, up from 16 percent in 1990. Because workers in their mid-forties to mid-fifties usually have substantial work experience and tend to be more stable than younger workers, this could result in improved productivity and a larger pool of experienced applicants from which employers may choose.
The number of older workers, aged 55 and above, is projected to grow about twice as fast as the total labor force between 1990 and 2005, and about five times as fast as the number of workers aged 55 and above grew between 1975 and 1990. As the baby boomers grow older, the number of workers aged 55 to 64 will increase; they exhibit higher labor force participation than their older counterparts. By 2005, workers aged 55 and over will comprise 15 percent of the labor force, up from 12 percent in 1990.
In recent years, the level of educational attainment of the labor force has risen dramatically. Between 1975 and 1990, the proportion of the labor force aged 25 to 64 with at least 1 year of college increased from 33 to 47 percent, while the proportion with 4 years of college or more increased from 18 to 26 percent (chart 4). Projected rates of employment growth are faster for occupations requiting higher levels of education or training than for those requiting less.
The emphasis on education will continue. Three out of the 4 fastest growing occupational groups will be executive, administrative, and managerial; professional specialty; and technicians and related support occupation's. These occupations generally require the highest levels of education and skill, and will make up an increasing proportion of new jobs. Office and factory automation, changes in consumer demand, and substitution of imports for domestic products are expected to cause employment to stagnate or decline in many occupations that require little formal education -- apparel workers and textile machinery operators, for example. Opportunities for high school dropouts will be increasingly limited, and workers who cannot read and follow directions may not even be considered for most jobs.
Employed high school dropouts are more likely to have low paying jobs with little advancement potential, while workers in occupations requiring higher levels of education have higher incomes. In addition, many of the occupations projected to grow most rapidly between 1990 and 2005 are among those with higher earnings.
Nevertheless, even slower growing occupations that have a large number of workers will provide many job openings resulting from the need to replace workers who leave the labor force or transfer to other occupations. Consequently, workers with all levels of education and training will continue to be in demand, although advancement opportunities will be best for those with the most education and training.
Total employment is expected to increase from 122.6 million in 1990 to 147.2 million in 2005, or by 20 percent. Reflecting a slowdown in labor force growth, this is only slightly more than half the rate of increase recorded during the previous 15-year period.
The 24.6 million jobs that will be added to the U.S. economy by 2005 will not be evenly distributed across major industrial and occupational groups -- causing some restructuring of employment. Continued faster than average employment growth among occupations that require relatively high levels of education or training is expected. The following two sections examine projected employment change from both industrial and occupational perspectives. The industrial profile is discussed in terms of wage and salary employment, except for agriculture, forestry, and fishing, which includes self-employed and unpaid family workers. The occupational profile is viewed in terms of total employment (wage and salary, self-employed, and unpaid family workers).
The long-term shift from goods-producing to service-producing employment is expected to continue (chart 5). For example, service-producing industries--including transportation, communications, and utilities; retail and wholesale trade; services; government; and finance, insurance, and real estate -- are expected to account for approximately 23 million of the 24.6 million new jobs created by the year 2005. In addition, the services division within this sector -- which includes health, career, and educational services -- contains 16 of the 20 fastest growing industries, and 12 of the 20 industries adding the most jobs. Expansion of service sector employment is linked to a number of factors, including changes in consumer tastes and preferences, legal and regulatory changes, advances in science and technology, and changes in the way careeres are organized and managed. Specific factors responsible for varying growth prospects in major industry divisions are discussed below.
Services. Services is both the largest and the fastest growing division within the service-producing sector (chart 6). This division provided 38 million jobs in 1990; employment is expected to rise 34.7 percent to 50.5 million by 2005, accounting for almost one-half of all new jobs. Jobs will be found in small firms and in large corporations, in State and local governments, and in industries as diverse as banking, hospitals, data processing, and management consulting. The two largest industry groups in this division, health services and career services, are projected to continue to grow very fast. In addition, social, legal, and engineering and management services industries further illustrate this division's strong growth.
Health care will continue to be one of the fastest growing industries in the economy. Employment in the health services industries is projected to grow from 8.9 to 12.8 million. Improvements in medical technology, and a growing and aging population will increase the demand for health services. Employment in home health care services -- the fastest growing industry in the economy -- nursing homes, and offices and clinics of physicians and other health practitioners is projected to increase the most rapidly throughout this period. However, not all health industries will grow at the same rapid rate. For example, hospitals, both public and private, will continue to be the largest, but slowest growing health care industry.
career services industries also will generate many jobs. Employment is expected to grow from 5.2 million in 1990 to 7.6 million in 2005. Personnel supply services, made up primarily of temporary help agencies, is the largest sector in this group and will continue to add many jobs. However, due to the slowdown in labor force participation by young women, and the proliferation of personnel supply firms in recent years, this industry will grow more slowly than during the 197590 period, although still faster than the average for all industries. career services also includes one of the fastest growing industries in the economy -- computer and data processing services. This industry's rapid growth stems from advances in technology, world wide trends toward office and factory automation, and increases in demand from career firms, government agencies, and individuals.
Education, both private and public, is expected to add 2.3 million jobs to the 9.4 million in 1990. This increase reflects population growth and, in turn, rising enrollments projected for elementary, secondary, and post secondary schools. The elementary school age population (ages 5-13) will rise by 3.8 million between 1990 and 2005, the secondary school age (14-17) by 3.2 million, and the traditional post secondary school age (18-24) by 1.4 million. In addition, continued rising enrollments of older, foreign, and part-time students are expected to enhance employment in post secondary education. Not all of the increase in employment in education, however, will be for teachers; teacher aides, counselors, and administrative staff also are projected to increase.
Employment in social services is expected to increase by 1.1 million, bringing the total to 2.9 million by 2005, reflecting the growing elderly population. For example, residential care institutions, which provide around-the-clock assistance to older persons and others who have limited ability for self-care, is projected to be one of the fastest growing industries in the U.S. economy. Other social services industries that are projected to grow rapidly include child daycare services and individual and miscellaneous social services, which includes elderly daycare and family social services.
Retail and wholesale trade. Employment in retail and wholesale trade is expected to rise by 26 and 16 percent, respectively; from 19.7 to 24.8 million in retail trade and from 6.2 to 7.2 million in wholesale trade. Guided by higher levels of personal income and continued increases in women's labor force participation, the fastest projected job growth in retail trade is in apparel and accessory stores and eating and drinking establishments, with the latter employing the most workers in this sector. Substantial numerical increases in retail employment are anticipated in food stores, automotive dealers and service stations, and general merchandise stores.
Finance, insurance, and real estate. Employment is expected to increase by 21 percent -- adding 1.4 million jobs to the 1990 level of 6.7 million. The demand for financial products and services is expected to continue unabated, but bank mergers, consolidations, and closings-resulting from overexpansion and competition from non bank corporations that offer bank-like services -- are expected to limit job growth. The fastest growing industry within this sector is expected to be nondepositor holding and investment offices, which includes careeres that compete with banks, such as finance companies and mortgage brokers.
Transportation, communications, and public utilities. Overall employment will increase by 15 percent. Employment in the transportation sector is expected to increase by 25 percent, from 3.6 to 4.4 million jobs. Truck transportation will account for 47 percent of all new jobs; air transportation will account for 32 percent. The projected gains in transportation jobs reflect the continued shift from rail to road freight transportation, rising personal incomes, and growth in foreign trade. In addition, deregulation in the transportation industry has increased personal and career travel options, spurring strong job growth in the passenger transportation arrangement industry, which includes travel agencies. Reflecting labor saving technology and industry competition, employment in communications is projected to decline by 13 percent. Employment in utilities, however, is expected to grow about as fast as the average, adding 160,000 new jobs, highlighted by one of the fastest growing industries in the economy -- water supply and sanitary services.
Government. Between 1990 and 2005, government employment, excluding public education and public hospitals, is expected to increase 14 percent, from 9.5 million to 10.8 million jobs. This growth will occur in State and local government; employment in the Federal Government is expected to decline by 31,000 jobs.
Employment in this sector peaked in the late 1970's, and has not recovered from the recessionary period of the early 1980's and the trade imbalances that began in the mid-1980's. Although overall employment in goods-producing industries is expected to show little change, growth prospects within the sector vary considerably.
Construction. Construction, the only goods-producing industry projected to grow, is expected to add 923,000 jobs between 1990 and 2005. Construction employment is expected to increase by 18 percent, from 5.1 to 6.1 million. Increases in road and bridge construction will offset the slowdown in demand for new housing, reflecting the slowdown in population growth and the overexpansion of office building construction in recent years.
Manufacturing. Manufacturing employment is expected to decline by 3 percent from the 1990 level of 19.1 million. The projected loss of manufacturing jobs reflects productivity gains achieved from increased investment in manufacturing technologies as well as a winnowing out of less efficient operations.
The composition of manufacturing employment is expected to shift since most of the jobs that will disappear are production jobs. The number of professional, technical, and managerial positions in manufacturing firms will increase.
Mining. Mining employment is expected to decline from 712,000 to 669,000 -- a 60 percent decline. Underlying this projection is the assumption that domestic oil production will drop and oil imports will rise sharply, reducing employment in the crude petroleum industry. However, the expected rise in oil prices should spark exploration and, consequently, a slight increase in employment in the oil field services industry. In addition, employment in coal mining should continue to decline sharply due to the expanded use of labor saving machinery.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing. Overall employment in agriculture, forestry, and fishing has been declining for many decades and this trend is expected to continue -- the number of jobs is projected to decline by 6 percent, from 3.3 million to 3.1 million.
The decline in agricultural, forestry, and fishing jobs reflects a decrease of 410,000 in the number of self-employed workers. Wage and salary positions are expected to increase by 214,000 -- with especially strong growth in the agricultural services industry, which includes landscape, horticultural, and farm management services.
Continued expansion of the service-producing sector conjures up an image of a work force dominated by cashiers, retail sales workers, and waiters. However, although service sector growth will generate millions of clerical, sales, and service jobs, it also will create jobs for financial managers, engineers, nurses, electrical and electronics technicians, and many other managerial, professional, and technical workers. In fact, the fastest growing occupations will be those that require the most formal education and training.
This section furnishes an overview of projected employment in 12 categories or "clusters" of occupations based on the Standard Occupational Classification (SOC). The SOC is used by all Federal agencies that collect occupational employment data, and is the organizational framework for grouping statements in the Handbook.
In the discussion that follows, projected employment change is described as growing faster, slower, or the same as the average for all occupations. (These phrases are explained on page 2.) While occupations that are growing fast generally offer good opportunities, the numerical change in employment also is important because large occupations, such as retail sales worker, may offer many more new jobs than a small, fast-growing occupation, such as paralegal (chart 7).
Technicians and related support occupations. Workers in this group provide technical assistance to engineers, scientists, and other professional workers, as well as operate and program technical equipment. Employment in this cluster is expected to increase by 37 percent, from 4.2 to 5.8 million, making it the fastest growing occupational cluster in the economy (chart 8). It also contains one of the fastest growing occupations -- paralegals. Employment of paralegals is expected to increase much faster than average as utilization of these workers in the rapidly expanding legal services industry increases. Health technicians and technologists, such as radio logic and surgical technologists, and computer programmers will add large numbers of jobs. Growth in other occupations, such as broadcast technicians, will be limited by labor saving technological advances.
Professional specialty occupations. Workers in these occupations perform a wide variety of duties, and are employed in almost every industry. Employment in this cluster is expected to grow by 32 percent, from 15.8 to 20.9 million jobs, continuing to grow faster than average, and significantly increasing its share of total employment by 2005. Much of this growth is a result of rising demand for computer specialists; social and recreation workers; lawyers; health diagnosing and treating occupations; and engineers.
Service occupations. This group includes a wide range of workers in protective services, food and beverage preparation, health services, and cleaning and personal services. Employment in these occupations is expected to grow by 29 percent, faster than average, from 19.2 to 24.8 million. An expanding population and economy, combined with higher personal incomes and increased leisure time, will spur demand for many different types of services. For example, employment of flight attendants, homemaker-home health aides, and preschool workers should all grow much faster than average.
Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations. Workers in this cluster establish policies, make plans, determine staffing requirements, and direct the activities of careeres, government agencies, and other organizations. Those in management support occupations provide technical assistance to managers. Employment in this cluster is expected to increase by 27 percent, from 12.5 to 15.9 million, reflecting faster than average growth. Growth will be spurred by the increasing number and complexity of career operations and result in large employment gains, especially in the services industry division. However, many careeres will streamline operations, reducing administrative costs and employing fewer managers, thus offsetting increases in employment.
Employment in these occupations tends to be driven by industry growth. For example, employment of health services managers will grow much faster than average, while only average growth is expected for wholesale and retail buyers and merchandise managers.
Hiring requirements in many managerial and administrative jobs are becoming more stringent. Work experience, specialized training, or graduate study will be increasingly necessary. Familiarity with computers will continue to be important as a growing number of firms rely on computerized management information systems.
Marketing and sales occupations. Workers in this cluster sell goods and services, purchase commodities and property for resale, and stimulate consumer interest. Employment in this cluster is projected to increase by 24 percent, from 14.1 to 17.5 million jobs, about as fast as average. Demand for services sales representatives, travel agents, and securities and financial services sales workers is expected to grow much faster than average due to strong growth in the industries that employ them. Many part- and full-time job openings are expected for retail sales workers and cashiers due to the large size, high turnover, and faster than average employment growth in these occupations. Opportunities for higher paying sales jobs, however, will tend to be more competitive.
Transportation and material moving occupations. Workers in this cluster operate the equipment used to move people and equipment. Employment in this group is expected to increase by 21 percent, from 4.7 to 5.7 million jobs. Faster than average growth is expected for bus drivers, while average growth is expected for truck drivers, reflecting rising school enrollments and growing demand for transportation services. Equipment improvements and automation should result in materials moving equipment operators increasing more slowly than the average. In addition, railroad transportation workers and water transportation workers are projected to show little change in employment as technological advances increase productivity.
Construction trades and extractive occupations. Workers in this group construct, alter, and maintain buildings and other structures, and operate drilling and mining equipment. Overall employment in this group is expected to rise from 4 to 4.8 million. Virtually all of the new jobs will be in construction. Spurred by new projects and alterations to existing structures, average employment growth is expected in construction. On the other hand, increased automation, continued stagnation in the oil and gas industries, and slow growth in demand for coal, metal, and other materials will result in little change in employment of extractive workers.
Mechanics, installers, and repairers. These workers adjust, maintain, and repair automobiles, industrial equipment, computers, and many other types of equipment. Overall employment in these occupations is expected to grow by 16 percent -- from 4.9 to 5.7 million -- due to increased use of mechanical and electronic equipment. One of the fastest growing occupations in this group is expected to be computer and office machine repairers, reflecting the increased use of these types of machines. Communications equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers, and telephone installers and repairers, in sharp contrast, are expected to record a decline in employment due to labor saving advances.
Administrative support occupations, including clerical. Workers in this largest major occupational group perform the wide variety of administrative tasks necessary to keep organizations functioning smoothly. The group as a whole is expected to grow by 13 percent, from 22.0 to 24.8 million jobs, more slowly than average. Technological advances are projected to slow employment growth for stenographers and typists, word processors, and data entry keyers. Others, such as receptionists and information clerks, will grow much faster than average, spurred by rapidly expanding industries such as career services. Because of their large size and substantial turnover, clerical occupations will offer abundant opportunities for qualified job seekers in the years ahead.
Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers, and laborers. Workers in this group assist skilled workers and perform routine, unskilled tasks. Overall employment is expected to increase by only 8 percent, slower than average, from 4.9 to 5.3 million jobs as routine tasks are automated. Employment of construction laborers, however, is expected to increase about as fast as average, reflecting growth in the construction industry.
Agriculture, forestry, and fishing occupations. Workers in these occupations cultivate plants, breed and raise animals, and catch fish. Although demand for food, fiber, and wood is expected to increase as the world's population grows, the use of more productive farming and forestry methods and the consolidation of smaller farms are expected to result in only a 5-percent increase in employment, from 3.5 to 3.7 million jobs. Employment of farm operators and farm workers is expected to rapidly decline, reflecting greater productivity; the need for skilled farm managers, on the other hand, should result in average employment growth in that occupation.
Production occupations. Workers in these occupations set up, install, adjust, operate, and tend machinery and equipment and use hand tools and hand-held power tools to fabricate and assemble products. Employment is expected to decline by 4 percent, from 12.8 to 12.3 million. Increases in imports, overseas production, and automation -- including robotics and advanced computer techniques -- will result in little change or slight declines in overall employment. Relative to other occupations, employment in many production occupations is more sensitive to fluctuations in the career cycle and competition from imports.
Most jobs through the year 2005 will become available as a result of replacement needs. Thus, even occupations with little or no employment growth or slower than average employment growth may still offer many job openings.
Replacement openings occur as people leave occupations. Some transfer to other occupations as a step up the career ladder or to change careers. Others stop working in order to return to school, to assume household responsibilities, or to retire.
The number of replacement openings and the proportion of job openings made up by replacement needs varies by occupation. Occupations with the most replacement openings generally are large, with low pay and status, low training requirements, and a high proportion of young and part-time workers. The occupations with relatively few replacement openings, on the other hand, are those with high pay and status, lengthy training requirements, and a high proportion of prime working age, full-time workers. Workers in these occupations generally have spent several years acquiring education or training that often is not applicable to other occupations. For example, among professional specialty occupations, only 46 percent of total job opportunities result from replacement needs, as opposed to 69 percent among administrative support occupations (chart 9).
Interested in More Detail?
Readers interested in more information about projections and detail on the labor force, economic growth, industry and occupational employment, or methods and assumptions should consult the November 1991 Monthly Labor Review or Outlook 1990-2005, BLS Bulletin 2402. Information on the limitations inherent to economic projections also can be found in either of these two publications. For additional occupational data, as well as statistics on educational and training completions, see the 1992 edition of Occupational Projections and Training Data, BLS Bulletin 2401.
Leads To More Information
This chapter describes many other ways to find information about occupations, counseling, education and training, financial aid, and finding a job. Also, look at the end of each occupational statement in the Handbook, under Sources of Additional Information, for organizations you can contact to obtain information about that particular occupation.
A good place to start collecting information you need is from the people closest to you, your family and friends. These personal contacts are often overlooked, but can be extremely helpful. They may be able to answer your questions directly or, more importantly, put you in touch with someone else who can. This "networking" can lead to an "informational interview," where you can meet with someone who is willing to answer your questions about a career or a company, and who can provide inside information on related fields and other helpful hints. This is a highly effective way to learn the recommended type of training for certain positions, how someone in that position entered and advanced, and what he or she likes and dislikes about the work. While developing your network of contacts, you may want to begin exploring other avenues.
Public libraries, career centers, and guidance offices have a great deal of career material. To begin your library search, look in the card catalog or at the computer listings under "vocations" or "careers" and then under specific fields. Also, leaf through the file of pamphlets that describe employment in different organizations. Check the periodicals section, where you will find trade and professional magazines and journals about specific occupations and industries. Familiarize yourself with the concerns and activities of potential employers by skimming their annual reports and other information they distribute to the public.
You can also find occupational information on video cassettes, in kits, and through computerized information systems. Check career centers for programs such as individual counseling, group discussions, guest speakers, field trips, and career days.
Always assess career guidance materials carefully. Information should be current. Beware of materials produced by schools for recruitment purposes that seem to glamorize the occupation, overstate the earnings, or exaggerate the demand for workers.
You may wish to seek help from a counselor. Counselors are trained to help you discover your strengths and weaknesses, guide you through an evaluation of your goals and values, and help you determine what you want in a career. The counselor will not tell you what to do, but will administer interest inventories and aptitude tests, interpret the results, and help you explore your options. Counselors also may be able to discuss local job markets, and the entry requirements and costs of the schools, colleges, or training programs offering preparation for the kind of work that interests you. You can find counselors in:
-- high school guidance offices,
-- college career planning and placement offices,
-- placement offices in private vocational/technical schools and institutions,
-- vocational rehabilitation agencies,
-- counseling services offered by community organizations,
-- private counseling agencies and private practices,
-- State employment service offices affiliated with the U.S. Employment Service.
Before employing the services of a private counselor or agency, seek recommendations and check their credentials. The International Association of Counseling Services (IACS) accredits counseling services throughout the country. To receive the listing of accredited services for your region, send a self-addressed, stamped, career-size envelope to IACS, 101 South Whiting St., Suite 211, Alexandria, VA 22304. The Directory of Counseling Services, an IACS publication providing employment counseling and other assistance, may be available in your library or school career counseling center. For a list of certified career counselors by State, contact the National Board of Certified Counselors, P.O. Box 5406, Greensboro, NC 27435. Phone: (919) 547-0607.
Professional societies, trade associations, labor unions, career firms, and educational institutions provide a variety of free or inexpensive career material. Many of these are identified in the Sources of Additional Information section of each Handbook statement. For information on occupations not covered in the Handbook, consult directories in your library's reference section for the names of potential sources. You may need to start with The Guide to American Directories or The Directory of Directories. Another useful resource is The Encyclopedia of Associations, an annual multivolume publication listing trade associations, professional societies, labor unions, and fraternal and patriotic organizations.
The National Audio visual Center, a central source for all audio visual material produced by the U.S. Government, rents and sells material on jobs and careers. For a catalog, contact the National Audio visual Center, 8700 Edgeworth Dr., Capitol Heights, MD 20743. Phone: (301) 763-1896.
For first-hand experience in an occupation, you may wish to intern, or take a summer or part-time job. Some internships offer academic credit or pay a stipend. Check with guidance offices, college career resource centers, or directly with employers.
State and Local Information
The Handbook provides information for the Nation as a whole. For help in locating State or local area information, contact your State occupational information coordinating committee (SOICC). These committees may provide the information directly, or refer you to other sources. Refer to the chapter beginning on page 000 for addresses and telephone numbers of the SOICC's.
Most States have career information delivery systems (CIDS). Look for these systems in secondary schools, post secondary institutions, libraries, job training sites, vocational rehabilitation centers, and employment service offices. Job seekers can use the systems computers, printed material, microfiche, and toll-free hot lines to obtain information on occupations, educational opportunities, student financial aid, apprenticeships, and military careers. Ask counselors and SOICC's for specific locations.
State employment security agencies develop detailed information about local labor markets, such as current and projected employment by occupation and industry, characteristics of the work force, and changes in State and local area economic activity. Addresses and telephone numbers of the directors of research and analysis in these agencies are listed in the chapter beginning on page 000.
Education and Training Information
Check with professional and trade associations for lists of schools that offer career preparation in a particular field. The Sources of Additional Information section of many Handbook statements directs you to organizations that can provide training information.
Refer to various directories, such as those that follow, for descriptions of courses of study, admissions requirements, expenses, and student financial aid information for colleges, universities, and other training institutions. Guidance offices, libraries, and large bookstores usually carry copies. Be sure to use the most recent edition because these directories are revised frequently. Guidance offices and libraries also have collections of college catalogs that list their specific programs, requirements, and expenses.
The Directory of Educational Institutions, published annually, lists schools accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Independent Colleges and Schools of the Career College Association. Most of these institutions are career schools, offering programs such as secretarial science, career administration, accounting, data processing, court reporting, paralegal studies, fashion merchandising, travel and tourism, culinary arts, drafting, and electronics. The Career College Association also distributes the Handbook of Accredited Private Trade and Technical Schools, which lists schools accredited by the Accrediting Commission for Trade and Technical Schools. For copies of these directories, write to the Career College Association, 750 1st St. NE., Washington, DC 20002. Phone: (202) 659-2460.
Information about home study programs appears in the Directory of Accredited Home Study Schools, published by the National Home Study Council. Send requests for the Directory, as well as a list of other publications, to the National Home Study Council, 1601 18th St. NW., Washington, DC 20009. Phone: (202) 234-5100.
Local labor unions, school guidance counselors, and State employment offices provide information about apprenticeships. Copies of The National Apprenticeship Program and Apprenticeship Information are available from the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training, U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 535-0545.
Financial Aid Information
Information about financial aid is available from a variety of sources. Contact your high school guidance counselor and college financial aid officer for information concerning scholarships, fellowships, grants, loans, and work-study programs. In addition, every State administers financial aid programs; contact State Departments of Education for information. Banks and credit unions can provide information about student loans. You also may want to study the directories and guides to sources of student financial aid available in guidance offices and public libraries.
The Federal Government provides grants, loans, work-study programs, and other benefits to students. Information about programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education is presented in The Student Guide to Federal Financial Aid Programs, updated annually. To get a copy, write to Federal Student Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20044, or phone, toll-free, 1-800-433-3243.
Meeting College Costs, an annual publication of the College Board, explains how student financial aid works and how to apply for it. The current edition is available to high school students through guidance counselors.
Need a Lift?, an annual publication of the American Legion, contains career and scholarship information. Single copies may be obtained without charge by calling (317) 635-8411. Multiple copies cost $2 each, prepaid (including postage), and can be obtained from the American Legion, Attn: National Emblem Sales, 700 N. Pennsylvania St., P.O. Box 1055, Indianapolis, IN 46204.
Some student aid programs are designed to assist specific groups-Hispanics, blacks, native Americans, or women, for example. Higher Education Opportunities for Minorities and Women, published by the U.S. Department of Education, is a guide to organizations offering assistance. This publication can be found in libraries and guidance offices, or may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information.
The Armed Forces have several educational assistance programs. These include the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC), the New G.I. bill, and tuition assistance. Information can be obtained from military recruiting centers, located in most cities.
Information on Finding a Job
It takes some people a great deal of time and effort to find a job they enjoy. Others may walk right into an ideal employment situation. Don't be discouraged if you have to pursue many leads. Friends, neighbors, teachers, and counselors may know of available jobs in your field of interest. Read the want ads. Consult State employment service offices and private or nonprofit employment agencies or contact employers directly.
Where To Learn About Job Openings
* State employment service offices
* Civil service announcements (Federal, State, local) Classified ads
-- Local and out-of-town newspapers
-- Professional journals
-- Trade magazines
* Labor unions
* Professional associations (State and local chapters) Libraries and community centers
* Women's counseling and employment programs
* Youth programs
* School or college placement services
* Employment agencies and career consultants
* Parents, friends, and neighbors
Tips for Finding the Right Job, a U.S. Department of Labor pamphlet, offers advice on determining your job skills, organizing your job search, writing a resume, and making the most of an interview. Check with your State employment service office, or order a copy from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone (202) 783-3238 for price and ordering information.
Getting Back to Work, another Department of Labor publication, is designed to assist laid off workers, in particular. It also provides information on searching for and landing a job, in addition to detailed information on 250 occupations that are most likely to require the skills of displaced workers. This booklet is available in most State employment service offices, or may be obtained, free of charge, from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Office of Employment Projections, 600 E St. NW., Room 9216, Washington, DC 20212. Phone: (202) 272-5381.
Informal job search methods. It is possible to apply directly to employers without a referral. You may locate a potential employer in the Yellow Pages, in directories of local chambers of commerce, and in other directories that provide information about employers. When you find an employer you are interested in, you can file an application even if you don't know for certain that an opening exists.
Want ads. The "Help Wanted" ads in newspapers list hundreds of jobs. Realize, however, that many job openings are not listed there. Also, be aware that the classified ads sometimes do not give some important information. Many offer little or no description of the job, working conditions, or pay. Some ads do not identify the employer. They may simply give a post office box for sending your resume. This makes follow up inquiries very difficult. Furthermore, some ads offer out-of-town jobs; others advertise employment agencies rather than employment.
Keep the following in mind if you are using want ads:
-- Do not rely solely on the classifieds to find a job; follow other leads as well.
-- Answer ads promptly, since openings may be filled quickly, even before the ad stops appearing in the paper.
-- Follow the ads diligently. Check them every day, as early as possible, to give yourself an advantage.
-- Beware of "no experience necessary" ads. These ads often signal low wages, poor working conditions, or straight commission work.
-- Keep a record of all ads to which you have responded.
Public employment service. The State employment service, sometimes called the Job Service, operates in coordination with the Labor Department's U.S. Employment Service. About 1,700 local offices, also known as employment service centers, help job seekers locate employment and help employers find qualified workers at no cost to themselves. To find the office nearest you, look in the State government telephone listings under "Job Service" or "Employment."
Job Interview Tips
* Learn about the organization.
* Have a specific job or jobs in mind.
* Review your qualifications for the job.
* Prepare answers to broad questions about yourself.
* Review your resume.
* Practice an interview with a friend or relative.
* Arrive before the scheduled time of your interview.
* Be well groomed.
* Dress appropriately.
* Do not chew gum or smoke.
* Answer each question concisely.
* Respond promptly.
* Use good manners. Learn the name of your interviewer and shake hands as you meet.
* Use proper English and avoid slang.
* Be cooperative and enthusiastic.
* Ask questions about the position and the organization.
* Thank the interviewer, and follow up with a letter.
Test (if employer gives one):
* Listen closely to instructions.
* Read each question carefully.
* Write legibly and clearly.
* Budget your time wisely and don't dwell on one question.
Information To Bring to an Interview:
* Social Security number.
* Driver's license number.
* Resume. Although not all employers require applicants to bring a resume, you should be able to furnish the interviewer with information about your education, training, and previous employment.
* Usually an employer requires three references. Get permission from people before using their names, and make sure they will give you a good reference. Try to avoid using relatives. For each reference, provide the following information: Name, address, telephone number, and job title.
Job matching and referral. At a State employment service office, an interviewer will determine if you are "job ready" or if counseling and testing services would be helpful before you begin your job search. After you are "job ready," you may examine the Job Bank, a computerized listing of public- and private-sector job openings that is updated daily. Select openings that interest you, then get more details from a staff member who can describe the job openings in detail and arrange for interviews with prospective employers.
Counseling and testing. Centers can test for occupational aptitudes and interests and then help you choose and prepare for a career.
Services for special groups. By law, veterans are entitled to priority at State employment service centers. Veterans employment representatives can inform you of available assistance and help you deal with any problems. Summer Youth Programs provide summer jobs in city, county, and State government agencies for low-income youth. Students, school dropouts, or graduates entering the labor market who are between 16 and 21 years of age are eligible. In addition, the Job Corps, with more than 100 centers throughout the United States, helps young people learn skills or obtain education.
Service centers also refer applicants to opportunities available under the Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) of 1982. JTPA prepares economically disadvantaged persons and those facing barriers to employment for jobs.
Call the Federal Job Information Center, operated by the Office of Personnel Management, for information about employment with the U.S. Government. The phone number is (202) 606-2700, or write to Federal Job Information Center, 1900 E St. NW., Room 1416, Washington, DC 20415.
Private employment agencies. These agencies can be very helpful, but don't forget that they are in career to make money. Most agencies operate on a commission basis, with the fee dependent upon a successful match. You or the hiring company will have to pay a fee for the matching service. Find out the exact cost and who is responsible for paying it before using the service.
While employment agencies can help you save time and contact employers who otherwise may be difficult to locate, in some cases, your costs may outweigh the benefits. Consider any guarantee they offer when figuring the cost.
What Goes Into a Resume
A resume summarizes your qualifications and employment history. It usually is required when applying for managerial, administrative, professional, or technical positions. Although there is no set format, it should contain the following information:
* Name, address, and telephone number.
* Employment objective. State the type of work or specific job you are seeking.
* Education, including school name and address, dates of attendance, curriculum, and highest grade completed or degree awarded.
* Experience, paid or volunteer. Include the following for each job: Job title, name and address of employer, and dates of employment. Describe your job duties.
* Special skills, knowledge of machinery, proficiency in foreign languages, honors received, awards, or membership in organizations.
* Note on your resume that "references are available upon request." On a separate sheet, list the name, address, telephone number, and job title of three references.
College career planning and placement offices. College placement offices facilitate matching job openings with suitable job seekers. You can set up schedules and use available facilities for interviews with recruiters or scan lists of part-time, temporary, and summer jobs maintained in many of these offices. You also can get counseling, testing, and job search advice and take advantage of their career resource library. Here you also will be able to identify and evaluate your interests, work values, and skills; attend workshops on such topics as job search strategy, resume writing, letter writing, and effective interviewing; critique drafts of resumes and videotapes of mock interviews; explore files of resumes and references; and attend job fairs conducted by the office.
Community agencies. Many nonprofit organizations offer counseling, career development, and job placement services, generally targeted to a particular group, such as women, youth, minorities, ex-offenders, or older workers.
Many communities have career counseling, training, placement, and support services for employment. These programs are sponsored by a variety of organizations, including churches and synagogues, nonprofit organizations, social service agencies, the State employment service, and vocational rehabilitation agencies. Many cities have commissions that provide services for these special groups.
Organizations for Specific Groups
The organizations listed below provide information on career planning, training, or public policy support for specific groups.
Disabled: President's Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities, 1331 F St. NW., 3rd Floor, Washington, DC 20004. Phone: (202) 376-6200.
The blind: Job Opportunities for the Blind Program, National Federation for the Blind, 1800 Johnson St., Baltimore, MD 21230. Phone: toll-free, 1-800-638-7518.
Minorities: National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP), 4805 Mount Hope Dr., Baltimore, MD 21215-3297. Phone: (212) 358-8900.
National Urban League, Employment Department, 500 E. 62nd St., New York, NY 10021. Phone: (301) 310-9000.
National Urban League, Washington Operations, 1111 14th St. NW., 6th Floor, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 898-1604.
Older workers: National Association of Older Workers Employment Services, c/o National Council on the Aging, 409 3rd St. SW., Suite 2000, Washington, DC 20024. Phone: (202) 479-1200.
American Association of Retired Persons, Worker Equity, 601 E St. NW., Floor A5, Washington, DC 20049. Phone: (202) 434-2040.
Association Nacional Por Personas Mayores (National Association for Hispanic Elderly), 2727 W. 6th St., Suite 270, Los Angeles, CA 90057. Phone: (213) 487-1922. This organization specifically serves low-income, minority older persons.
National Caucus/Center on Black Aged, Inc., 1424 K St. NW., Suite 500, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 637-8400.
Veterans: Contact the nearest regional office of the Veterans Administration.
Women: U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau, 200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523-6652.
Catalyst, 250 Park Ave. South, 5th floor, New York, NY 10003. Phone: (212) 777-8900. (Ask for the free referral pamphlet called Career Development Resources.)
Wider Opportunities for Women, 1325 G St. NW., Lower Level, Washington, DC 20005. Phone: (202) 638-3143.
Federal laws, executive orders, and selected Federal grant programs bar discrimination in employment based on race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, and handicap. Information on how to file a charge of discrimination is available from U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission offices around the country. Their addresses and telephone numbers are listed in telephone directories under U.S. Government, EEOC, or are available from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 1801 L St. NW., Washington, DC 20507. Phone: (202) 663-4264.
Information on Federal laws concerning fair labor standards such as the minimum wage and equal employment opportunity can be obtained from the Office of Information and Consumer Affairs, Employment Standards Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room C-4331,200 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20210. Phone: (202) 523-8743.
Sources of State and Local Job Outlook Information
State and local job market and career information is available from State employment security agencies and State Occupational Information Coordinating Committees (SOICC's). State employment security agencies develop occupational employment projections and other job market information. SOICC's provide or help locate labor market and career information. The following list provides the title, address, and telephone number of State employment security agency directors of research and SOICC directors.
Director, Labor Market Information, Alabama Department of Industrial Relations, 649 Monroe St., Room 422, Montgomery, AL 36130. Phone: (205) 242-8855.
Director, Alabama Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Bell Bldg., 207 Montgomery St., Suite 400, Montgomery, AL 36130. Phone: (205) 242-2990.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Alaska Department of Labor, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907) 465-100%0.
Executive Director, Alaska Department of Labor, Research and Analysis Section, P.O. Box 25501, Juneau, AK 99802-5501. Phone: (907) 465-4518.
Program Director, American Samoa State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Office of Manpower Resources, American Samoa Government, Pago Pago, AS 96799. Phone: (684) 633-4485.
Research Administrator, Arizona Department of Economic Security, 1789 West Jefferson, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 733A, Phoenix, AZ 85005. Phone: (602) 542-3871.
Executive Director, Arizona State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 6123, Site Code 897J, 1788 West Jefferson St., First Floor North, Phoenix, AZ 85005. Phone: (602) 542-3680.
State and Labor Market Information, Arkansas Employment Security Division, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203. Phone: (501) 682-1543.
Executive Director, Arkansas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Arkansas Employment Security Division, Employment and Training Services, P.O. Box 2981, Little Rock, AR 72203. Phone: (501) 682-3159.
Acting Chief, Employment Data and Research Division, California Employment Development Department, P.O. Box 942880, MIC 57, Sacramento, CA 94280-0001. Phone: (916) 427-4675.
Executive Director, California Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 800 Capitol Mall, MIC-67, Sacramento, CA 95814. Phone: (916) 323-6544.
Director, Labor Market Information, Chancey Building, 8th Floor, 1120 Lincoln St., Denver, CO 80203. Phone: (303) 894-2589.
Director, Colorado Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, State Board Community College, 1391 Speer Blvd., Suite 600, Denver, CO 80204-2554. Phone: (303) 866-4488.
Director, Research and Information, Employment Security Division, Connecticut Labor Department, 200 Folly Brook Blvd., Wethersfield, CT 06109. Phone: (203) 566-2120.
Executive Director, Connecticut Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Connecticut Department of Education, 25 Industrial Park Rd., Middletown, CT 06457. Phone: (203) 638-4042.
Chief, Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information, Delaware Department of Labor, University Plaza, Building D, P.O. Box 9029, Newark, DE 19702-9029. Phone: (302) 368-6962.
Executive Director, Office of Occupational and Labor Market Information, Delaware Department of Labor, University Office Plaza, P.O. Box 9029, Newark, DE 19714-9029. Phone: (302) 368-6963.
District of Columbia
Chief of Labor Market Information, District of Columbia Department of Employment Services, 500 C St. NW., Room 201, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 639-1642.
Executive Director, District of Columbia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Department of Employment Security Services, 500 C St. NW, Room 215, Washington, DC 20001. Phone: (202) 639-1090.
Chief, Bureau of Labor Market Information, Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, 2012 Capitol Circle, SE, Room 200, Hartman Building, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0674. Phone: (904) 488-1048.
Manager, Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, Bureau of Labor Market Information, 2012 Capitol Circle, SE., Hartman Bldg., Suite 200, Tallahassee, FL 32399-0673. Phone: (904) 488-7397.
Director, Labor Information System, Georgia Department of Labor, 223 Courtland St., NE., Atlanta, GA 30303. Phone: (404) 656-3177.
Executive Director, Georgia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Department of Labor, 148 International Blvd., Sussex Place, Atlanta, GA 30303. Phone: (404) 656-9639.
Executive Director, Guam State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Human Resource Development Agency, Jay Ease Bldg., Third Floor, P.O. Box 2817, Agana, GU 96910. Phone: (871) 646-9341.
Chief, Research and Statistics Office, Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 304, Honolulu, HI 96813. Phone: (808) 548-7639.
Executive Director, Hawaii Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 830 Punchbowl St., Room 315, Honolulu, HI 96813. Phone: (808) 548-3496.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Idaho Department of Employment, 317 Main St., Boise, ID 83735. Phone: (208) 334-6169.
Director, Idaho Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Len B. Jordan Bldg., Room 301, 650 West State St., Boise, ID 83720. Phone: (208) 334-3705.
Director, Economic Information and Analysis, Illinois Department of Employment Security, 401 South State St., 2 South, Chicago, IL 60605. Phone: (312) 793-2316.
Executive Director, Illinois Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 217 East Monroe, Suite 203, Springfield, IL 62706. Phone: (217) 785-0789.
Director, Labor Market Information, Indiana Department of Employment and Training Services, 10 North Senate Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46204. Phone: (317) 232-8456.
Executive Director, Indiana Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 309 West Washington St., Room 309, Indianapolis, IN 46204. Phone: (317) 232-8528.
Supervisor, Audit and Analysis Department, Iowa Department of Employment Services, 1000 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50319. Phone: (515) 281-8181.
Executive Director, Iowa Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Iowa Department of Economic Development, 200 East Grand Ave., Des Moines, IA 50309. Phone: (515) 242-4890.
Chief, Labor Market Information Services, Kansas Department of Human Resources, 401 Topeka Ave., Topeka, KS 66603. Phone: (913) 296-5058.
Director, Kansas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 401 Topeka Ave., Topeka, KS 66603. Phone: (913) 296-1865.
Manager, Labor Market Research and Analysis, Kentucky Department for Employment Services, 275 East Main St., Frankfort, KY 40621. Phone: (502) 564-7976.
Information Liaison/Manager, Kentucky Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 275 East Main St. - 1 East, Frankfort, KY 40621-0001. Phone: (502) 564-4258.
Director, Research and Statistics Division, Louisiana Department of Employment and Training, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (504) 342-3141.
Coordinator, Louisiana Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 94094, Baton Rouge, LA 70804-9094. Phone: (504) 342-5149.
Director, Division of Economic Analysis and Research, Maine Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, 20 Union St., Augusta, ME 04330. Phone: (207) 289-2271.
Executive Director, Maine Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, State House Station 71, Augusta, ME 04333. Phone: (207) 289-2331.
Director, Office of Labor Market Analysis and Information, Maryland Department of Economic and Employment Development, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 601, Baltimore, MD 21201. Phone: (301) 333-5000.
Coordinator, Maryland Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Department of Employment and Training, 1100 North Eutaw St., Room 600, Baltimore, MD 21201. Phone: (301) 333-5478.
Director of Research, Massachusetts Division of Employment Security, 19 Staniford St., 2nd Floor, Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617) 727-6868.
Director, Massachusetts Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Massachusetts Division of Employment Security, Charles F. Hurley Bldg., 2nd Floor, Government Center, Boston, MA 02114. Phone: (617) 727-6718.
Director, Bureau of Research and Statistics, Michigan Employment Security Commission, 7310 Woodward Ave., Detroit, MI 48202. Phone: (313) 876-5445.
Executive Coordinator, Michigan Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Victor Office Center, Third Floor, 201 North Washington Square, Box 30015, Lansing, MI 48909. Phone: (517) 373-0363.
Director, Research and Statistical Services, Minnesota Department of Jobs and Training, 390 North Robert St., 5th Floor, St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone: (612) 296-6546.
Director, Minnesota Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Minnesota Department of Economic Security, 690 American Center Bldg., 150 East Kellogg Blvd., St. Paul, MN 55101. Phone: (612) 296-2072.
Chief, Labor Market Information Department, Mississippi Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 1699, Jackson, MS 39215-1699. Phone: (601) 961-7424.
Acting Executive Director, Department of Economic and Community Development, Labor Assistance Division, Mississippi Occupational Information Coordinating Committee Office, 301 West Pearl St., Jackson, MS 39203-3089. Phone: (601) 949-2002.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Missouri Division of Employment Security, P.O. Box 59, Jefferson City, MO 65104. Phone: (314) 751-3591.
Director, Missouri Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 421 East Dunklin St., Jefferson City, MO 65101. Phone: (314) 751-3800.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Montana Department of Labor and Industry, P.O. Box 1728, Helena, MT 59624. Phone: (406) 444-2430.
Program Manager, Montana Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 1728, 1327 Lockey St., Second Floor, Helena, MT 59624. Phone: (406) 444-2741.
Research Administrator, Labor Market Information, Nebraska Department of Labor, 550 South 16th St., P.O. Box 94600, Lincoln, NE 68509. Phone: (402) 471-9964.
Administrator, Nebraska Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 94600, State House Station, Lincoln, NE 68509-4600. Phone: (402) 471-4845.
Chief, Employment Security Research, Nevada Employment Security Department, 500 East Third St., Carson City, NV 89713. Phone: (702) 687-4550.
Executive Director, Nevada Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1923 North Carson St., Suite 211, Carson City, NV 89710. Phone: (702) 687-4577.
Director, Labor Market Information, New Hampshire Department of Employment Security, 32 South Main St., Concord, NH 03301-4587. Phone: (603) 228-4123.
Director, New Hampshire State Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 64B Old Suncook Rd., Concord, NH 03301. Phone: (603) 228-3349.
Assistant Commissioner, Policy and Planning, New Jersey Department of Labor, John Fitch Plaza, Room 1010, Trenton, NJ 08625-0056. Phone: (609) 292-2643.
Staff Director, New Jersey Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1008 Labor and Industry Bldg., CN 056, Trenton, NJ 08625-0056. Phone: (609) 292-2682.
Chief, Economic Research and Analysis Bureau, New Mexico Department of Labor, 401 Broadway Boulevard, NE, P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone: (505) 841-8645.
Director, New Mexico Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Tiwa Bldg., 401 Broadway NE., P.O. Box 1928, Albuquerque, NM 87103. Phone: (505) 841-8455.
Director, Division of Research and Statistics, New York State Department of Labor, State Campus, Bldg. 12, Room 400, Albany, NY 12240-0020. Phone: (518) 457-6181.
Executive Director, New York Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Department of Labor, Research and Statistics Division, State Campus, Bldg. 12, Room 400, Albany, NY 12240. Phone: (518) 457-6182.
Director, Labor Market Information Division, North Carolina Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 25903, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733-2936.
Executive Director, North Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1311 St. Mary's St., Suite 250, P.O. Box 27625, Raleigh, NC 27611. Phone: (919) 733-6700.
Director, Research and Statistics, Job Service of North Dakota, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, ND 58502. Phone: (701) 224-2868.
Coordinator, North Dakota Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1600 East Interstate, Suite 14, P.O. Box 1537, Bismarck, ND 58502-1537. Phone: (701) 224-2197.
Labor Market Information Division, Ohio Bureau of Employment Services, 145 South Front St., Columbus, OH 43215. Phone: (614) 644-2689.
Director, Ohio Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Division of LMI, Ohio Bureau of Employment Services, 1160 Dublin Rd., Bldg. A, Columbus, OH 43215. Phone: (614) 644-2689.
Director, Research Division, Oklahoma Employment Security Commission, 308 Will Rogers Memorial Ofc. Bldg., Oklahoma City, OK 73105. Phone: (405) 557-7116.
Executive Director, Oklahoma Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Department of Voc/Tech Education, 1500 W. 7th Ave., Stillwater, OK 74074. Phone: (405) 743-5198.
Assistant Administrator for Research and Statistics, Oregon Employment Division, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, OR 97311. Phone: (503) 378-3220.
Executive Director, Oregon Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 875 Union St. NE., Salem, OR 97311. Phone: (503) 378-8146.
Director, Research and Statistics Division, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, 1216 Labor and Industry Building, Harrisburg, PA 17121. Phone: (717) 787-3265.
Director, Pennsylvania Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry, 1224 Labor and Industry Bldg., Harrisburg, PA 17120. Phone: (717) 787-8646.
Director, Research and Statistics Division, Puerto Rico Department of Labor and Human Resources, 505 Munoz Rivera Ave., 20th Floor, Hato Rey, PR 00918. Phone: (809) 754-5385.
Executive Director, Puerto Rico Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 202 Del Cristo St., P.O. Box 6212, San Juan, PR 00936-6212. Phone: (809) 723-7110.
Administrator, Labor Market Information and Management Services, Rhode Island Department of Employment and Training, 101 Friendship St., Providence, RI 02903-3740. Phone: (401) 277-3730.
Director, Rhode Island Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 22 Hayes St., Room 133, Providence, RI 02908. Phone: (401) 272-0830.
Director, Labor Market Information, South Carolina Employment Security Commission, P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202. Phone: (803) 737-2660.
Director, South Carolina Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 1550 Gadsden St., P.O. Box 995, Columbia, SC 29202. Phone: (803) 737-2733.
Director, Labor Information Center, South Dakota Department of Labor, P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Phone: (605) 622-2314.
Director, South Dakota Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, South Dakota Department of Labor, 420 South Roosevelt St., P.O. Box 4730, Aberdeen, SD 57402-4730. Phone: (605) 622-2314.
Director, Research and Statistics Division, Tennessee Department of Employment Security, 500 James Robertson Pkwy., 11th Floor, Nashville, TN 37245-1000. Phone: (615) 741-2284.
Director, Tennessee Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 500 James Robertson Pkwy., 11th Floor Volunteer Plaza, Nashville, TN 37219. Phone: (615) 741-6451.
Director, Economic Research and Analysis, Texas Employment Commission, 15th and Congress Ave., Room 208T, Austin, TX 78778. Phone: (512) 463-2616.
Director, Texas Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Texas Employment Commission Building, Room 526T, 15th and Congress, Austin, TX 78778. Phone: (512) 463-2399.
Director, Labor Market Information and Research, Utah Department of Employment Security, 140 East 300 South, P.O. Box 11249, Salt Lake City, UT 84147. Phone: (801) 536-7400.
Executive Director, Utah Occupational Information Coordinating Committee-c/o Utah Department of Employment Security, P.O. Box 11249, 174 Social Hall Ave., Salt Lake City, UT 84147-0249. Phone: (801) 533-2274.
Director, Policy and Information, Vermont Department of Employment and Training, 5 Green Mountain Dr., P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05602. Phone: (802) 229-0311.
Director, Vermont Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Green Mountain Dr., P.O. Box 488, Montpelier, VT 05601-0488. Phone: (802) 229-0311.
Director, Economic Information Service Division, Virginia Employment Commission, P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23211. Phone: (804) 786-7496.
Executive Director, Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, Virginia Employment Commission, 703 East Main St., P.O. Box 1358, Richmond, VA 23211. Phone: (804) 786-7496.
Chief, Research and Analysis, Virgin Islands Department of Labor, P.O. Box 3159, St. Thomas, VI 00801. Phone: (809) 776-3700.
Coordinator, Virgin Islands Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, P.O. Box 3359, St. Thomas, VI 00801. Phone: (809) 776-3700.
Labor Market Information, Washington Employment Security Department, 212 Maple Park, Mail Stop KG-11, Olympia, WA 98504-5311. Phone: (206) 753-5114.
Director, Washington Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, 212 Maple Park, MS KG-11, Olympia, WA 98504-5311. Phone: (206) 438-4803.
Assistant Director, Labor and Economic Research, West Virginia Bureau of Employment Programs, 112 California Ave., Charleston, WV 25305-0112. Phone: (304) 348-2660.
Executive Director, West Virginia Occupational Information Coordinating Committee, One Dunbar Plaza, Suite E, Dunbar, WV 25064. Phone: (304) 293-5314.
Director, Labor Market Information Bureau, Wisconsin Department of Industry, Labor, and Human Relations, 201 East Washington Ave., Room 221, P.O. Box 7944, Madison, WI 53707. Phone: (608) 266-5843.
Administrative Director, Wisconsin Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Division of Employment and Training Policy, 201 East Washington Ave., P.O. Box 7972, Madison, WI 53707. Phone: (608) 266-8012.
Manager, Research and Planning, Division of Administration, Wyoming Department of Employment, P.O. Box 2760, Casper, WY 82602. Phone: (307) 235-3646.
Executive Director, Wyoming Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Post Office Box 2760, 100 West Midwest, Casper, WY 82602. Phone: (307) 235-3642.
Occupational Projections and Training Data, 1992 Edition
This supplement to the Occupational Outlook Handbook provides the statistical and technical data supporting the information presented in the Handbook. Education and training planners, career counselors, and job seekers can find valuable information that ranks occupations by employment growth, earnings, susceptibility to unemployment, separation rates, and part-time work.
Every 2 years, the Bureau of Labor Statistics produces detailed projections of the U.S. economy and labor force. This bulletin presents the Bureau's latest analyses of economic and industrial growth, the labor force, and trends in occupational employment into the 21st century. An overview article focuses on important issues raised by these projections.
At press time, prices for these publications were not available. For prices and ordering information, contact any of the Bureau of Labor Statistics Regional Offices listed on the inside of the front cover, or the Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC 20212.
New from BLS
Do you want to know more about work in industries?
* Number of jobs
* Geographic areas having the most jobs
* Size of establishments
* Goods and services produced
* Kinds of workers employed--what types of work is done
* Common working conditions and hazards
* Jobs that can be entered from high school; from college
* Jobs that do not require specialized education or training
* Opportunities for acquiring skills
* Prospects for upward mobility
* Long-term employment outlook
* Reasons for changing staffing patterns
* Earnings of key occupations
Then, don't miss this new publication!
Career Guide to Industries
Career Guide to Industries, BLS Bulletin 2403, was produced by the same staff that prepares the Occupational Outlook Handbook -- the Federal Government's premier career guidance publication. This new book is a must for guidance counselors, individuals planning their careers, job seekers, and others who want the latest word on career information from an industry perspective.